# 75 Logical Reasoning Interview Questions to Assess Candidates

September 09, 2024

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In today's competitive job market, hiring the right candidate with strong logical reasoning skills is paramount. This blog post provides a comprehensive list of logical reasoning interview questions that can help you better assess candidates' problem-solving and analytical abilities.

You will find questions categorized by experience levels, from junior analysts to mid-tier analysts, as well as questions focusing on specific skills like problem-solving techniques, analytical skills, and pattern recognition. Additionally, we include behavioral questions to get a well-rounded view of a candidate's logical reasoning capabilities.

Using these questions can significantly enhance your interviewing process and ensure you select candidates with the right skill set. For an even more thorough evaluation, consider using tests from our logical reasoning test library before conducting interviews.

10 Logical Reasoning interview questions to initiate the interview

9 Logical Reasoning interview questions and answers to evaluate junior analysts

15 intermediate Logical Reasoning interview questions and answers to ask mid-tier analysts.

8 Logical Reasoning interview questions and answers related to problem-solving techniques

12 Logical Reasoning questions related to analytical skills

10 Logical Reasoning questions related to pattern recognition

11 behavioral Logical Reasoning interview questions

Which Logical Reasoning skills should you evaluate during the interview phase?

Leverage Logical Reasoning Skills Tests to Secure Top Talent

Download Logical Reasoning interview questions template in multiple formats

To kickstart your interview and assess a candidate's logical reasoning skills, consider using these 10 thought-provoking questions. These questions are designed to evaluate problem-solving abilities, critical thinking, and analytical skills across various roles and industries.

- You have a 5-liter jug and a 3-liter jug. How would you measure exactly 4 liters of water?
- If you have a basket containing 5 apples and you take away 3, how many apples do you have?
- A farmer has 17 sheep. All but 9 die. How many sheep are left?
- How many months have 28 days?
- You're in a race and you pass the person in second place. What position are you in now?
- A doctor gives you three pills and tells you to take one every half hour. How long will the pills last?
- If a red house is made from red bricks, a blue house is made from blue bricks, what is a greenhouse made of?
- You have two hourglasses: one measures 4 minutes, and the other measures 7 minutes. How can you measure exactly 9 minutes?
- If it takes 5 machines 5 minutes to make 5 widgets, how long would it take 100 machines to make 100 widgets?
- A man buys a horse for $60, sells it for $70, buys it back for $80, and finally sells it for $90. How much profit did he make?

To effectively evaluate junior analysts' logical reasoning skills, consider using this curated list of interview questions. These questions are designed to uncover their problem-solving abilities and analytical thinking, ensuring you make an informed hiring decision.

To determine if a problem has a unique solution or multiple solutions, you need to analyze the constraints and conditions given in the problem. If all conditions lead to a single outcome, the solution is unique. If multiple scenarios can satisfy the conditions, there are multiple solutions.

Ideal candidates should show their ability to think critically and consider all possible scenarios. Look for answers that include checking the problem constraints and considering edge cases.

To identify anomalies in a large dataset, I would start with data visualization techniques such as scatter plots, histograms, or box plots to spot any outliers. Additionally, statistical methods like calculating the z-score can help identify data points that deviate significantly from the mean.

Candidates should demonstrate an understanding of both visual and statistical methods for anomaly detection. Look for their ability to explain the steps clearly and justify their choice of methods. This approach mirrors skills often needed for a data analyst job.

Breaking down a complex problem involves several steps: First, understand the problem by identifying its key components. Next, divide the problem into smaller, more manageable parts, and address each part individually. Finally, integrate the solutions of the smaller parts to solve the overall problem.

Strong candidates should be able to explain their thought process clearly and logically. They should mention techniques such as creating sub-tasks, using flowcharts, or employing mind maps to visualize the problem.

In situations with incomplete information, it's crucial to gather as much relevant data as possible and make a decision based on the best available evidence. For example, I once had to choose a vendor for a project with limited information on their past performance. I reviewed available reviews, sought recommendations, and assessed their proposals to make an informed decision.

Candidates should show their ability to make rational decisions even under uncertainty. Look for examples where they balanced risk and made use of whatever information was available, highlighting their analytical and decision-making skills.

When resources are limited, prioritization becomes key. Begin by identifying the most critical parts of the problem that need addressing. Allocate resources to these high-priority areas first and look for creative solutions or alternatives that require fewer resources.

Ideal candidates will discuss the importance of prioritization and efficient resource management. They should be able to explain how they assess the criticality of different tasks and seek innovative solutions to work within constraints.

To resolve conflicting information, I would first verify the sources of the data to ensure their credibility. Then, I would look for patterns or trends that might explain the discrepancies. Cross-referencing with additional data sources can also help clarify the conflict.

Candidates should exhibit a methodical approach to resolving conflicts in data. Look for their ability to validate sources, identify patterns, and seek additional information to make an informed decision.

In a previous role, I was tasked with optimizing a workflow that had several inefficiencies. By mapping out each step and examining the logic behind the current process, I identified redundant tasks and streamlined the workflow, resulting in significant time savings.

Candidates should provide specific and concrete examples, demonstrating their ability to apply logical reasoning to real-world problems. Look for clear explanations of their thought process and the impact of their solution.

If I realized I made an error in my analysis, I would first identify and correct the mistake. Then, I would communicate the error and its implications to relevant stakeholders, along with the corrected analysis. It's important to be transparent and proactive in addressing errors.

Strong candidates will demonstrate accountability and a proactive approach to error correction. Look for their communication skills and how they handle the follow-up to mitigate any potential impact of the error.

Logical reasoning is crucial for analysts as it enables them to systematically approach problems, ensure data accuracy, and draw valid conclusions. It helps in identifying patterns, making data-driven decisions, and solving complex issues effectively.

Ideal candidates should articulate the significance of logical reasoning in their role, showing an understanding of how it applies to their daily tasks. Look for examples that highlight their analytical mindset and problem-solving skills.

To evaluate the logical reasoning skills of mid-tier analysts, consider using these 15 intermediate interview questions. These questions will help you assess candidates' problem-solving abilities and their capacity to think critically, which are essential for roles like data analyst.

- If you have eight balls and one of them is heavier, how would you find the heavier ball using a balance scale in just two weighings?
- Explain how you would approach solving a problem if you are given two different solutions from two different team members.
- How would you prioritize tasks if you are given multiple assignments with tight deadlines?
- Describe a method you would use to find duplicate records in a database.
- If you were given a complex report with some missing data, how would you handle the situation?
- How would you solve a problem if the standard approach is not working?
- Imagine you are given a series of numbers. How would you determine if there is a pattern?
- If you were asked to create a schedule for a project but the requirements keep changing, how would you manage it?
- What logical steps would you take to troubleshoot an issue in a software application?
- Describe a situation where you had to use data to make a recommendation. What was your process?
- If you have a set of rules and one contradicts the other, how would you resolve the conflict?
- How would you determine the root cause of a problem if initial tests don’t provide clear answers?
- Explain how you would approach a logical puzzle where the solution is not immediately obvious.
- If you need to explain a complex logical concept to a non-technical person, how would you go about it?
- How would you verify the accuracy of a result in a logical reasoning task?

Ready to put your candidates' problem-solving skills to the test? These 8 logical reasoning questions will help you assess how applicants approach complex issues and make decisions. Use them to gauge analytical thinking and creative problem-solving abilities during your next interview session.

This is the classic Eight Queens Puzzle. To solve it, candidates should explain that queens in chess can attack horizontally, vertically, and diagonally. Therefore, no two queens can be placed in the same row, column, or diagonal.

A valid solution might involve placing queens at positions like (0,0), (1,4), (2,7), (3,5), (4,2), (5,6), (6,1), and (7,3) on the grid.

Look for candidates who approach this methodically, perhaps by starting with one queen and then logically placing others. Strong problem-solvers might mention that there are actually 92 distinct solutions to this puzzle, demonstrating their broader understanding of the problem.

A strong answer should include several key components:

- Data collection: Gathering relevant transaction data, user behavior, and historical patterns.
- Feature engineering: Identifying key indicators of fraud (e.g., unusual purchase amounts, frequency, location mismatches).
- Machine learning model: Implementing algorithms like Random Forest or Neural Networks to classify transactions.
- Real-time processing: Using stream processing technologies to analyze transactions as they occur.
- Rule-based filters: Complementing ML models with expert-defined rules for known fraud patterns.
- Feedback loop: Continuously updating the system based on new fraud patterns and false positives/negatives.

Look for candidates who emphasize the importance of balancing false positives (legitimate transactions flagged as fraud) with false negatives (missed fraudulent transactions). They should also mention the need for regular model updates and human oversight in the fraud detection process.

The solution involves using not just sight, but touch as well. Here's how a candidate might approach it:

- Turn on the first switch and leave it on for several minutes.
- Turn off the first switch and turn on the second switch.
- Enter the adjacent room.
- The lamp that's on corresponds to the second switch.
- Touch the other two lamps. The warm one corresponds to the first switch, and the cool one to the third switch.

Look for candidates who think outside the box and consider using multiple senses to solve the problem. This demonstrates creativity in problem-solving and the ability to challenge assumptions (in this case, that sight is the only way to determine which lamp is which).

This is a classic estimation problem. A strong answer would break down the problem into manageable steps:

- Estimate the volume of a Boeing 747 (e.g., length x width x height).
- Estimate the volume of a tennis ball (using the formula for the volume of a sphere).
- Divide the volume of the Boeing 747 by the volume of a tennis ball.
- Apply a packing efficiency factor (tennis balls won't fill 100% of the space).

Look for candidates who make reasonable assumptions, explain their thought process clearly, and understand that precision isn't as important as the logical approach. Strong problem-solvers might also consider factors like the weight limit of the plane or the need for air circulation, showing depth of analysis.

The solution to this problem involves several steps:

- Fill the 5-gallon jug completely.
- Pour water from the 5-gallon jug into the 3-gallon jug until it's full.
- You now have 2 gallons left in the 5-gallon jug.
- Empty the 3-gallon jug.
- Pour the 2 gallons from the 5-gallon jug into the 3-gallon jug.
- Fill the 5-gallon jug again.
- Carefully pour water from the 5-gallon jug into the 3-gallon jug until it's full (it will only take 1 gallon because 2 gallons are already in there).
- You now have exactly 4 gallons in the 5-gallon jug.

Look for candidates who can break down the problem into clear, logical steps. Strong problem-solvers might also mention alternative solutions or discuss how they'd approach similar problems with different jug sizes, showing flexibility in their thinking.

A strong answer would involve using graph theory and considering real-time data. Key components of the solution might include:

- Represent the city as a graph, with intersections as nodes and roads as edges.
- Assign weights to edges based on distance and current traffic conditions.
- Implement a pathfinding algorithm like Dijkstra's or A* to find the shortest path.
- Continuously update edge weights with real-time traffic data.
- Consider using machine learning to predict traffic patterns based on historical data.

Look for candidates who understand the complexity of real-world applications. They should mention challenges like handling large amounts of data, ensuring the algorithm runs quickly enough for practical use, and dealing with sudden changes in traffic conditions. Strong problem-solving skills are crucial for this type of complex system design.

The solution involves dividing the coins strategically:

- Divide the coins into three groups: 3, 3, and 2.
- Weigh the two groups of 3 coins against each other.
- If they balance, the heavier coin is in the group of 2. Weigh these 2 coins against each other to find the heavier one.
- If one group of 3 is heavier, take those 3 coins and divide them into 1, 1, and 1.
- Weigh two of these coins against each other. If they balance, the third coin is the heavier one. If not, the heavier side contains the heavier coin.

Look for candidates who can explain their reasoning clearly and consider all possible outcomes. Strong problem-solvers might also discuss how this approach could be adapted for different numbers of coins or weighings, demonstrating their ability to generalize solutions.

The solution involves using the divisibility rule for 3:

- Sum all the digits of the number.
- If the sum is a single digit and divisible by 3, the original number is divisible by 3.
- If the sum is multiple digits, repeat the process until you get a single digit.
- If the final single digit is divisible by 3 (i.e., 0, 3, 6, or 9), the original number is divisible by 3.

For example, for 123,456: 1+2+3+4+5+6 = 21 2+1 = 3 3 is divisible by 3, so 123,456 is divisible by 3.

Look for candidates who can explain the mathematical reasoning behind this rule. Strong problem-solvers might also mention similar rules for other numbers (like 9) or discuss how they'd approach finding divisibility rules for numbers without known simple rules.

To assess candidates' analytical skills, use these 12 logical reasoning questions during interviews. These questions help evaluate a candidate's ability to think critically, solve problems, and draw conclusions from given information.

- How would you approach analyzing a large dataset to identify trends and patterns?
- Explain how you would design an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new product feature.
- If you noticed a sudden spike in customer complaints, how would you investigate the root cause?
- How would you determine the optimal pricing strategy for a new service?
- Describe your process for validating the accuracy of data from multiple sources.
- How would you identify potential biases in a machine learning model?
- Explain your approach to forecasting sales for the next quarter based on historical data.
- How would you design a system to detect and prevent fraud in financial transactions?
- Describe how you would analyze the impact of a marketing campaign on user engagement.
- How would you determine the most efficient route for a delivery service in a large city?
- Explain your method for identifying key performance indicators for a new business initiative.
- How would you approach optimizing the inventory management system for a retail chain?

To assess a candidate's pattern recognition skills, essential for roles like data analysis and software development, use these 10 logical reasoning questions. These questions help evaluate how well applicants can identify trends, sequences, and relationships in data or visual elements.

- If you see the sequence 2, 6, 12, 20, 30, what would be the next number and why?
- In a grid of numbers, how would you identify a hidden pattern or relationship?
- Given a series of shapes: circle, square, triangle, circle, square, what comes next?
- How would you continue this letter sequence: A, C, F, J, O?
- If you notice that every third customer complaint mentions a specific feature, what might this indicate?
- In a sequence of playing cards, how would you determine the rule for their arrangement?
- Given a set of seemingly random numbers, how would you approach finding a pattern?
- If you observe that website traffic spikes every 7 days, what conclusion might you draw?
- How would you identify the odd one out in this group: Apple, Orange, Banana, Carrot, Grape?
- If you see a repeating pattern in customer behavior, how might you use this information?

To assess candidates' logical reasoning skills in real-world scenarios, consider using these behavioral questions. They help evaluate how applicants apply logic to solve problems, make decisions, and handle workplace situations. Use these questions to gain insights into a candidate's thought process and problem-solving abilities.

- Describe a time when you had to make a quick decision with limited information. How did you approach it?
- Tell me about a situation where you had to identify a pattern in complex data. What was your process?
- Can you share an experience where you had to break down a large project into smaller, manageable tasks?
- How would you approach prioritizing multiple urgent tasks with conflicting deadlines?
- Describe a time when you had to explain a complex concept to someone with no technical background.
- Tell me about a situation where you had to challenge an established process. How did you approach it?
- How would you go about verifying the accuracy of information from multiple conflicting sources?
- Describe a time when you had to make a decision that went against popular opinion. How did you handle it?
- Tell me about a situation where you had to find a creative solution to a recurring problem.
- How would you approach identifying the root cause of a sudden drop in product sales?
- Describe a time when you had to adjust your analysis based on new, unexpected information.

While it's impossible to evaluate every aspect of a candidate's logical reasoning abilities in a single interview, focusing on key skills can provide a comprehensive understanding of their capabilities. The following skills are essential for assessing a candidate's logical reasoning proficiency.

Problem-solving skills are critical as they demonstrate how effectively a candidate can navigate complex scenarios and find actionable solutions. This competency directly correlates with logical reasoning, as it involves analyzing information, identifying patterns, and devising strategies.

An assessment test with relevant MCQs is a practical way to gauge problem-solving skills. For instance, our logical reasoning test includes questions tailored to assess this skill effectively.

To further assess problem-solving abilities, you can ask targeted interview questions specifically designed to reveal the candidate's thought process.

Describe a time when you faced a significant problem at work. How did you approach solving it?

When asking this question, look for a structured approach in their response. Note how they break down the problem, the steps they took to resolve it, and the outcome of their efforts.

Pattern recognition is crucial for logical reasoning as it involves identifying trends and regularities within data. This skill is imperative for analysts and other roles requiring the synthesis of information to predict outcomes or identify anomalies.

Using an assessment test with tailored MCQs can help in evaluating pattern recognition skills. Questions from our logical reasoning test offer a comprehensive assessment of this ability.

During the interview, you can ask specific questions aimed at understanding the candidate's ability to recognize and interpret patterns.

Can you provide an example of a time when you identified a pattern that others overlooked? How did you recognize it, and what was the impact?

Pay attention to the candidate's ability to explain how they identified the pattern, the methods they used, and the resultant impact or benefit of recognizing the pattern.

Analytical thinking is fundamental to logical reasoning. It involves the ability to deconstruct complex information, interpret data, and make reasoned decisions. This skill is essential for roles that require critical analysis and strategic planning.

Implementing an assessment test with relevant MCQs can effectively measure analytical thinking. Our analytical skills test includes a variety of questions to accurately assess this ability.

To evaluate analytical thinking during an interview, you can ask questions that challenge the candidate's ability to analyze and interpret information.

How do you approach analyzing a large set of data to make a strategic decision? Can you walk me through your process?

Look for a systematic approach in their answer, including how they gather data, the tools or methods they use to analyze it, and how they translate their findings into actionable strategies.

When aiming to hire individuals proficient in logical reasoning, it's important to verify that candidates possess the necessary skills accurately.

The most straightforward way to assess these competencies is through targeted skill tests. Explore our tailored assessments like the Logical Reasoning Test or the Analytical Skills Test to ensure your candidates meet the job requirements.

Utilizing these tests allows you to effectively screen and shortlist the most capable applicants, preparing them for the subsequent interview phase.

To move forward with this streamlined hiring process, consider signing up on our platform or learn more about our offerings on the online assessment platform page.

25 mins | 15 MCQs

The logical reasoning test evaluates a candidate's logical reasoning, critical thinking, and aptitude skills using scenario-based, verbal, image-based, puzzle, and sequence questions.

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Why are Logical Reasoning questions important in interviews?

Logical Reasoning questions help assess a candidate's analytical skills, problem-solving abilities, and critical thinking. They provide insight into how candidates approach complex situations.

How can I use these questions effectively in an interview?

Use these questions to gauge different aspects of logical reasoning. Start with simpler questions and progress to more complex ones. Pay attention to the candidate's thought process and approach.

Are these questions suitable for all job roles?

While logical reasoning is valuable in many roles, tailor the difficulty and relevance of questions to the specific job requirements. Some questions may be more suitable for analytical or technical positions.

How do I evaluate candidates' responses to these questions?

Focus on the candidate's reasoning process, not just the final answer. Look for clarity of thought, ability to break down problems, and innovative approaches to solving challenges.

Can I combine these questions with other interview techniques?

Yes, these questions can be part of a comprehensive interview strategy. Combine them with behavioral questions, technical assessments, and role-specific inquiries for a well-rounded evaluation.

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