- How is Kubernetes related to Docker?
- What is Container Orchestration?
- What are the features of Kubernetes?
- How does Kubernetes simplify containerized Deployment?
- What is Google Container Engine?
- What is Heapster?
- What is Minikube?
- What is Kubectl?
- What is the syntax for the Kube-proxy command?
- What is the syntax for the Kubectl command?
- What is Kubelet?
- What are the different components of Kubernetes Architecture?
- What do you understand by Kube-proxy?
- What is the Kubernetes controller manager?
- What are the different types of controller manager running on the master node?
- What is ETCD?
- What do you understand by load balancer in Kubernetes?
- Write a command to create and fetch the deployment.
- What is Ingress network?
- What do you understand by Cloud controller manager?
- What are the different types of cloud controller manager?
- What is a Headless Service?
- What are federated clusters?
- What is a pod?
- What is the difference between a daemonset, a deployment, and a replication controller?
- What is a sidecar container, and what would you use it for?
- How can you separate resources?
- What are K8s?
- What is a node in Kubernetes?
- What does the node status contain?
- What process runs on Kubernetes Master Node?
- What is the job of the kube-scheduler?
- What is a cluster of containers in Kubernetes?
- What is a Namespace in Kubernetes?
- Name the initial namespaces from which Kubernetes starts?
- What are the different services within Kubernetes?
- What is ClusterIP?
- What is NodePort?
- What is Kube-proxy?
- How can you get a static IP for a Kubernetes load balancer?
- What is the difference between config map and secret?
- If a node is tainted, is there a way to still schedule the pods to that node?
- Can we use many claims out of a persistent volume?
- What is Kube-proxy?
- What are the tools that are used for container monitoring?
- What are the important components of node status?
- What is minikube?
- Explain Prometheus in Kubernetes.
- List tools for container orchestration.
- Define Stateful sets in Kubernetes.
- Explain Replica set.
- Why uses Kube-apiserver?
- Explain the types of Kubernetes pods.
- What are the labels in Kubernetes?
- What is Sematext Docker Agent?
- Define OpenShift.
- What is ContainerCreating pod?
- What do you mean by Persistent Volume Claim?
- What will happen while adding new API to Kubernetes?
- How do you make changes in the API?
- What is kubectl drain?
- Define Autoscaling in Kubernetes.
- What is the “Master”?
- What is a Swarm in Docker?
- What is Kubernetes Log?
- What are the types of Kubernetes Volume?
- Explain PVC.
- What is the Kubernetes Network Policy?
- What are minions in Kubernetes cluster?
- Kubernetes cluster data is stored in which of the following?
- Which of them is a Kubernetes Controller?
- Which of the following are core Kubernetes objects?
- The Kubernetes Network proxy runs on which node?
- What are the responsibilities of a node controller?
- What are the responsibilities of Replication Controller?
- How to define a service without a selector?
- What did the 1.8 version of Kubernetes introduce?
- The handler invoked by Kubelet to check if a container’s IP address is open or not is?
Docker provides the lifecycle management of containers and a Docker image builds the runtime containers. But, since these individual containers have to communicate, Kubernetes is used. So, Docker builds the containers and these containers communicate with each other via Kubernetes. So, containers running on multiple hosts can be manually linked and orchestrated using Kubernetes.
Consider a scenario where you have 5-6 microservices for an application. Now, these microservices are put in individual containers, but won’t be able to communicate without container orchestration. So, as orchestration means the amalgamation of all instruments playing together in harmony in music, similarly container orchestration means all the services in individual containers working together to fulfill the needs of a single server.
- Automated Scheduling - Self healing capabilities
- Automated Rollouts and rollback - Horizaontal Scaling and Load Balancing
As a typical application would have a cluster of containers running across multiple hosts, all these containers would need to talk to each other. So, to do this you need something big that would load balance, scale & monitor the containers. Since Kubernetes is cloud-agnostic and can run on any public/private providers it must be your choice simplify containerized deployment.
Google Container Engine (GKE) is an open source management platform for Docker containers and the clusters. This Kubernetes based engine supports only those clusters which run within the Google’s public cloud services.
Heapster is a cluster-wide aggregator of data provided by Kubelet running on each node. This container management tool is supported natively on Kubernetes cluster and runs as a pod, just like any other pod in the cluster. So, it basically discovers all nodes in the cluster and queries usage information from the Kubernetes nodes in the cluster, via on-machine Kubernetes agent.
Minikube is a tool that makes it easy to run Kubernetes locally. This runs a single-node Kubernetes cluster inside a virtual machine.
Kubectl is the platform using which you can pass commands to the cluster. So, it basically provides the CLI to run commands against the Kubernetes cluster with various ways to create and manage the Kubernetes component.
The syntax for Kubectl is kubectl [command] [TYPE] [NAME] [flags]
The syntax to configure Proxy is: kube-proxy [flags]
This is an agent service which runs on each node and enables the slave to communicate with the master. So, Kubelet works on the description of containers provided to it in the PodSpec and makes sure that the containers described in the PodSpec are healthy and running.
The Kubernetes Architecture has mainly 2 components – the master node and the worker node. The master and the worker nodes have many inbuilt components within them. The master node has the kube-controller-manager, kube-apiserver, kube-scheduler, etcd. Whereas the worker node has kubelet and kube-proxy running on each node.
Kube-proxy can run on each and every node and can do simple TCP/UDP packet forwarding across backend network service. So basically, it is a network proxy which reflects the services as configured in Kubernetes API on each node. So, the Docker-linkable compatible environment variables provide the cluster IPs and ports which are opened by proxy.
Multiple controller processes run on the master node but are compiled together to run as a single process which is the Kubernetes Controller Manager. So, Controller Manager is a daemon that embeds controllers and does namespace creation and garbage collection. It owns the responsibility and communicates with the API server to manage the end-points.
- Node Controller - Replication controller
- Service account and token controller - Endpoints controller
Etcd is written in Go programming language and is a distributed key-value store used for coordinating between distributed work. So, Etcd stores the configuration data of the Kubernetes cluster, representing the state of the cluster at any given point in time.
A load balancer is one of the most common and standard ways of exposing service. There are two types of load balancer used based on the working environment i.e. either the Internal Load Balancer or the External Load Balancer. The Internal Load Balancer automatically balances load and allocates the pods with the required configuration whereas the External Load Balancer directs the traffic from the external load to the backend pods.
To create: kubectl create –f Deployment.yaml –record
To fetch: kubectl get deployments
Ingress network is a collection of rules that acts as an entry point to the Kubernetes cluster. This allows inbound connections, which can be configured to give services externally through reachable URLs, load balance traffic, or by offering name-based virtual hosting. So, Ingress is an API object that manages external access to the services in a cluster, usually by HTTP and is the most powerful way of exposing service.
The Cloud Controller Manager is responsible for persistent storage, network routing, abstracting the cloud-specific code from the core Kubernetes specific code, and managing the communication with the underlying cloud services. It might be split out into several different containers depending on which cloud platform you are running on and then it enables the cloud vendors and Kubernetes code to be developed without any inter-dependency. So, the cloud vendor develops their code and connects with the Kubernetes cloud-controller-manager while running the Kubernetes.
- Node Controller - Route Controller
- Volume Controller - Service Controller
Headless Service is similar to that of a ‘Normal’ services but does not have a Cluster IP. This service enables you to directly reach the pods without the need of accessing it through a proxy.
Multiple Kubernetes clusters can be managed as a single cluster with the help of federated clusters. So, you can create multiple Kubernetes clusters within a data center/cloud and use federation to control/manage them all at one place.
A pod is the most basic Kubernetes object. A pod consists of a group of containers running in your cluster. Most commonly, a pod runs a single primary container.
A daemonset ensures that all nodes you select are running exactly one copy of a pod. A deployment is a resource object in Kubernetes that provides declarative updates to applications. It manages the scheduling and lifecycle of pods. It provides several key features for managing pods, including pod health checks, rolling updates of pods, the ability to roll back, and the ability to easily scale pods horizontally.
The replication controller specifies how many exact copies of a pod should be running in a cluster. It differs from a deployment in that it does not offer pod health checks, and the rolling update process is not as robust.
A sidecar container is a utility container that is used to extend support for a main container in a Pod. Sidecar containers can be paired with one or more main containers, and they enhance the functionality of those main containers. An example would be using a sidecar container specifically to process system logs or for monitoring.
You can separate resources by using namespaces. These can be created either using kubectl or applying a YAML file. After you have created the namespace you can then place resources, or create new resources, within that namespace. Some people think of namespaces in Kubernetes like a virtual cluster in your actual Kubernetes cluster.
K8s is another term for Kubernetes.
A node is the smallest fundamental unit of computing hardware. It represents a single machine in a cluster, which could be a physical machine in a data center or a virtual machine from a cloud provider. Each machine can substitute any other machine in a Kubernetes cluster. The master in Kubernetes controls the nodes that have containers.
The main components of a node status are Address, Condition, Capacity, and Info.
The Kube-api server process runs on the master node and serves to scale the deployment of more instances.
The kube-scheduler assigns nodes to newly created pods.
A cluster of containers is a set of machine elements that are nodes. Clusters initiate specific routes so that the containers running on the nodes can communicate with each other. In Kubernetes, the container engine (not the server of the Kubernetes API) provides hosting for the API server.
Namespaces are used for dividing cluster resources between multiple users. They are meant for environments where there are many users spread across projects or teams and provide a scope of resources.
- Kube – system
- Kube – public
- Cluster IP service
- Node Port service
- External Name Creation service and
- Load Balancer service
The ClusterIP is the default Kubernetes service that provides a service inside a cluster (with no external access) that other apps inside your cluster can access.
The NodePort service is the most fundamental way to get external traffic directly to your service. It opens a specific port on all Nodes and forwards any traffic sent to this port to the service.
Kube-proxy is an implementation of a load balancer and network proxy used to support service abstraction with other networking operation. Kube-proxy is responsible for directing traffic to the right container based on IP and the port number of incoming requests.
A static IP for the Kubernetes load balancer can be achieved by changing DNS records since the Kubernetes Master can assign a new static IP address.
Config maps ideally stores application configuration in a plain text format whereas Secrets store sensitive data like password in an encrypted format. Both config maps and secrets can be used as volume and mounted inside a pod through a pod definition file.
When a node is tainted, the pods don't get scheduled by default, however, if we have to still schedule a pod to a tainted node we can start applying tolerations to the pod spec.
The mapping between persistentVolume and persistentVolumeClaim is always one to one. Even When you delete the claim, PersistentVolume still remains as we set persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy is set to Retain and It will not be reused by any other claims.
Kube-proxy is an implementation of both a network proxy and a load balancer. It is used to support service abstraction used with other networking operations. It is responsible for directing traffic to the container depend on IP and the port number.
Minikube is a software that helps the user to run Kubernetes. It runs on the single nodes that are inside VM on your computer. This tool is also used by programmers who are developing an application using Kubernetes.
Prometheus is an application that is used for monitoring and alerting. It can be called out to your systems, grab real-time metrics, compress it, and stores properly in a database.
- Docker swarm
- Apache Mesos
The stateful set is a workload API object that is used to manage the stateful application. It can also be used to manage the deployments and scaling the sets of pods. The state information and other data of stateful pods are store in the disk storage, which connects with stateful set.
A Replica set is used to keep replica pods stable. It enables us to specify the available number of identical pods. This can be considered a replacement for the replication .controller.
Kube-apiserver is an API server of Kubernetes that is used to configure and validate API objects, which include services, controllers, etc. It provides the frontend to the cluster's shared region using which components interact with each other.
There are two types of pods in Kubernetes:
- Single Container Pod: It can be created with the run command.
- Multicontainer pods: It can be created using the "create" command in Kubernetes.
Labels are a collection of keys that contain some values. The key values are connected to pods, replication controllers, and associated services. Generally, labels are added to some object during its creation time. They can be modified by the users at run time.
Sematext Docker agent is a log collection agent with events and metrics. It runs as a small container in each Docker host. These agents gather metrics, events, and logs for all cluster nodes and containers.
OpenShift is a public cloud application development and hosting platform developed by Red Hat. It offers automation for management so that developers can focus on writing the code.
A ContainerCreating pod is one that can be scheduled on a node but can’t start up properly.
Persistent Volume Claim is actually the storage provided to the pods in Kubernetes after the request from Kubernetes. User is not expected to have knowledge in the provisioning and the claims has to be created where the pod is created and in the same namespace.
If you add a fresh API to Kubernetes, the same will provide extra features to Kubernetes. So, adding a new API will improve the functioning ability of Kubernetes. But, this will increase the cost and maintenance of the entire system. So, there is a need to maintain the cost and complexity of the system. This can be achieved by defining some sets for the new API.
Changes in the API server has to be done by the team members of Kubernetes. They are responsible to add a new API without affecting the functions in the existing system.
kubectl drain command is used to drain a specific node during maintenance. Once this command is given, the node goes for maintenance and is made unavailable to any user. This is done to avoid assigning this node to a new container. The node will be made available once it completes maintenance.
One of the important feature of Kubernetes is Autoscaling. Autoscaling can be defined as scaling the nodes according to the demand for service response. Through this feature, cluster increases the number of nodes as per the service response demand and decreases the nodes in case of the decrease in service response requirement. This feature is supported currently in Google Container Engine and Google Cloud Engine and AWS is expected to provide this feature at the earliest.
Master refers to a central point of control, which gives a unified view of a cluster. There is a single master node, which controls different minions. Master servers then work together to accept user requests and determine the best means of scheduling the workload containers, authenticate clients and nodes as well as adjust on the cluster wide networking and managing the scaling and health checking of responsibilities.
The docker Swarm is a clustering and scheduling tool for the Docker containers. When it comes to Swarm, the IT administrators and developers would establish and manage a cluster of Docker nodes as part of the single virtual system.
Kubernetes container logs are much similar to Docker container logs. But, Kubernetes allows users to view logs of deployed pods i.e running pods.
The types of Kubernetes Volume are:
- GCE persistent disk
The full form of PVC stands for Persistent Volume Claim. It is storage requested by Kubernetes for pods. The user does not require to know the underlying provisioning. This claim should be created in the same namespace where the pod is created.
Network Policy defines how the pods in the same namespace would communicate with each other and the network endpoint.
- A) They are components of the master node.
- B) They are the work-horse / worker node of the cluster.
- C) They are monitoring engine used widely in kubernetes.
- D) They are docker container service.
- A) Kube-apiserver
- B) Kubelet
- C) Etcd
- D) None of the above
- A) ReplicaSet
- B) Deployment
- C) Rolling Updates
- D) Both ReplicaSet and Deployment
- A) Pods
- B) Services
- C) Volumes
- D) All of the above
- A) Master Node
- B) Worker Node
- C) All the nodes
- D) None of the above
- A) To assign a CIDR block to the nodes
- B) To maintain the list of nodes
- C) To monitor the health of the nodes.
- D) All of the above
- A) Update or delete multiple pods with a single command .
- B) Helps to achieve the desired state.
- C) Creates a new pod, if the existing pod crashes.
- D) All of the above.
- A) Specify the external name
- B) Specify an endpoint with IP Address and port
- C) Just by specifying the IP address.
- D) Specifying the label and api-version
- A) Taints and Tolerations
- B) Cluster level Logging
- C) Secrets
- D) Federated Clusters
- A) HTTPGetAction
- B) ExecAction
- C) TCPSocketAction
- D) None of the above
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